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Culpepper: Julius Caesar Research: Paraphrasing

How to Successfully Paraphrase

Paraphrasing is NOT changing out a few words or changing the simple order of words.   You MUST rework the entire sentence and put it in your own words and voice.  In doing so, you must also be careful to keep the material factually accurate.   

Here are some helpful steps to paraphrase successfully.  With practice, paraphrasing will become much easier.  

1.  Read the material completely, writing down bullet points on the facts or opinions presented.  Be CAREFUL NOT to copy down "word for word" sections or phrases without using quotation marks.  

2.  Set the material and your notes aside.  Breifly explain, in complete sentences, the information your have learned from the resource.  Use paraphrase indicators to identify the author of the ideas you recall (see list on right).

3.  Check your explanation against your notes and make any factual corrections necessary.

4.  In all cases, include an in-text citation to the original resource.  Example:  ...scientific studies of global warming (Gore 160).

-steps taken from HUHS Plagiarism LibGuide

Paraphrase Indicators

Hatton believes that…
Fisher accepts this argument, adding
According to Moberg …
Fisher accredits this to the fact that….
Miller acknowledges these findings…
Marchese admits that while….
Anderson advances the idea that…
Boone advises
Moberg advocates
Brothers affirms
Gard agrees...
Marsden ascertained that…
Reif appeals to his readers by….
Anderson argues
Romanelli asserts
Fisher assumes

Eastman attests to this…
Hatton claims that…
Ramirez conceived
Fisher concludes
Stried considers
Paulson contends
Gard contests this, stating that…
J. Scott credits Smith with…
Hilbelink deduces
Anderson defends these ideas…
Holmquist demonstrates
Eastman denies the effects…
Loizzo describes
Bauer disapproves of this approach…
Fisher disputes
Cowell enumerates the causes…
Gard establishes
Erickson estimates that…
Kemp expects
Hatton explains
Herpst expresses his concern…
Stillman echoes these concerns…
Perry favors an approach where…
Pokel feels that…
Gard finds/found that… 
Kracjo furthers these arguments by
Moberg hypothesizes
Hatton implies
Fisher indicates that…
Douglas infers that…
Gard interprets this as…
Erickson judges these beliefs to be
Kealy justifies his reasoning
Moberg maintains that…
Masterson is of the opinion that…
Douglas postulates
Van Berkum predicts
Erickson persuades his readers that
Hatton presents convincing evidence that…
Peterson promotes the concept that…
Lynch proposes a different idea based on…
Taylor presumes this to be true when he…
Fisher puts forth
Amundson reacts to these claims by…
Fisher reasons
Cowell recommends
Moberg recounts his own experiences in…
Westenberger regards this fact as
Jensen refutes this…
Erickson relates additional evidence…
Bates remarks that
Paulson reports the findings of…
Jenkins responds to this by
Moberg says
Ward sets forth
Brovick shows
Cowell speculates
Brothers states
Butterfield suggests
Anderson supports
Phillips surmises that…
Fisher suspects
Carey tells of
Eckert testifies
Boone theorizes
Brothers thinks
Jones understands that
Diers upholds
Cowell urges
Elsen voices his concerns

-Indicators from HUHS Plagiarism LibGuide