MLA 8th Edition Citation Elements Graphic
Maximum two authors. Three or more authors use: Last name, First name of 1st author, et al.
Identify type of contribution (edited by, illustrated by, directed by etc.) and First Name Last Name if significant to research topic.Contributors are listed after the title of the source.
NUMBER, ISSUE, VERSION, VOLUME identified. (use vol #. or no # etc.)
Only Identify sponsoring organization/publisher if different from the Web Site Title. Do not repeat if the same. For Print/Books omit city of publication.
LOCATION [ALL full citations in the Works Cited must include a Locator!]
Identify single page (p#) or page range utilized (pp.#-#) if print; Include URL for web page (omit http://) or provide DOI (if available)
When to use (In-text) Parenthetical Citations in Your Paper
In your paper, place an in-text citation at the end of each sentence (just before the final period for the sentence) when you:
1) Directly Quote a statement from an authority, person interviewed on topic or 1-2 sentences from a source
2) Summarize an author's ideas (read about the main concepts of a topic and put them in your own words);
3) Paraphrase information from a source (retate facts, statistics, names, dates in your own original words and sentence)
IMPORTANT: 1st - Correct your Works Cited List first and Create In-Text Citations from it
IMPORTANT: Last step - Make certain that you have a full citation in Works Cited for every In-Text Citation in your paper
For parenthetical citations of PRINT materials/sources (with page numbers) :
[direct quote] "The world can no longer close it's eyes to the problem of global warming" (Tanaka 12).
[summary] It is possible that the slow but steady rise in the earth's temperatures could cause wide-spread droughts, ferocious storms and major flooding as the sea level rises (Behr 33).
[paraphrase - digital source without page numbers]
In 1990, countries participating in the U.N. Kyoto Protocol agreed to express future measurements of greenhouse gas emissions against the baseline that existed in that year, and by 2015 it was found that globally, greenhouse gas emissions had increased by 37% (Dahlman).
Sample Paragraph with In-Text Citations
Scientists, politicians, religious leaders and everyday people all have their opinion on the issue of "global warming" and how serious it is at this point in the earth's history. Polar ice fields have been melting over the past few generations and most everyone has witnessed images of animals and peoples from the very high and low latitudes being displaced as a result. "The world can no longer close its eys to the problem of global warming" (Tanaka 12). Gathering hard data on the issue has been a challenge, but finally in 1990, countries participating in the U.N. Kyoto Protocol agreed to express future measurements of greenhouse gas emissions against the baseline that existed in that year, and by 2015 it was found that globally, greenhouse gas emissions had increased by 37% (Dahlman). If emissions continue to increase, the temperature of the earth and its vast oceans could possibly rise to the point where ferocious storms, flooding, and droughts would be the new reality (Behr 33).
Behr, Peter. "In the Dark." Environmental Forum, vol. 34, no. 2, Mar/Apr2017, pp. 32-37.
Tanaka, Shelley. Climate Change. Groundwood, 2006. p.12.