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Trissler: DigLit - 2020 Research Unit: Preparing to Write! Full Citations -> In-Text Citations and Paraphrasing

SAMPLE Research Report & Works Cited Page

MOST Important:  Research Report Tells a Story - has a Logical Progression!

Introduction : Why does this matter?

Factual Support

Concluding Prediction

Facts/Dates/Ideas from original sources: 

All paraphrased sentences (your own words) with In-text Citations for sources at end of sentence!

A Works Cited Page listing the sources for information printed for last page and shared in Noodletools!


Sample Paragraphs with In-Text Citations


      Progress has been made slowly but surely in the area of cyberbullying and there are several reasons this is true. According to research studies conducted in 2017, there was a decrease in cyberbullying among adolescents when compared to the previous year; 24% percent of teenagers have been cyberbullied vs. 31% in 2016 ("Cox ").  High profile companies, such as Cox and Cartoon Network have launched public interest campaigns that encourage teens, parents, and educators to all who speak up when cyberbullying occurs.  Parents can also pay an influential role in preventing cyberbullying by placing the computer in a public space in the home, knowing their children's logins and passwords and which social networks they frequently visit, and most importantly by discussing cyberbullying with their kids and by letting them know it is not their fault if they ar victimized by a cyberbully attack.  Parents who assure their children that their computer privileges will not be revoked if they inform them that they have been cyberbullyied are much more likely to help prevent serious future ongoing harrasment ("What").  The goal is to build trust within the family and at home with the hope of significantly reducing the extent of cyberbullying by at least 10% by 2020 when the next survey will be conducted ("Cox ").   Finally, educators can play a powerful role by instituting academic and institutional sanctions against known cyberbullies. Students must realize that if caught bullies will be pulled from sports teams or even suspended (Evans).

     Making such a change in the behavior of teens, parents, and educators is easier said than done.  Especially at home, parents have to agree to a strategy and stick with it.  Having conversations about social media and cyberbullying with today's teens both at home and at school can make all the difference (Howard and Carpenter 30).  Vigilance, communication, and consistency are the keys to making the Internet a safer place for everyone.


Works Cited

"Cox Survey: Cyberbullying Continues, But More Teens Are Speaking Up." Mental Health

      Weekly Digest 13 Oct. 2014:65. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. psychology.mtl.pdf.km43p, 1 Dec. 2018.

Evans, John. "How to Beat Cyberbullying." New York Times Late Edition (East Coast) ed. . 11 March

      2018. http;// 3 December 2018.

Howard, John and Susan Carpenter. Cyberbullying. ABC-CLIO, 2017. pp.23-27.

"What Parents Can Do About Cyberbullying." National Crime Prevention Council.  National

      Crime Prevention Council, 2018.,  Accessed 3 Oct 2017.



MLA 8th Keeps it Simple! 

MOST COMMON In-Text Citations

In-text citations of PRINT/BOOK materials with one (1) author

(Author's Last Name # of page from source you are referencing) 

BOOK: Full Citation (in Works Cited):

Gore, Albert. An Inconvenient Truth. Viking, 2007, pp.10-160.

Sample In-text citation - quote

"The world can no longer turn a blind eye to the problem of global warming" (Gore 19).


In-text citations of ELECTRONIC SOURCE with ONE (1) author

Electronic sources (webarticles, database articles, etc. = no page #s!)

Parks, Barbara. "global Warming and climate Change." Gale Opposing Viewpoints

     Online collection, Gale, 2019. Gale in Context:Science,

    /apps/doc/PC301, Accessed 7 Nov. 2019.

In 1975 Wallace Broecker coined the scientific term "global warming" (Parks).


In-text citations of ELECTRONIC SOURCE with two (2) authors

(Last Name of first author, First name, and First Name of second Author Last Name)

Schmidt, Charles, and Sydney Jones. "The Kyoto Protocol: Just a Lot of Hot Air".  Environmental

        Health Perspectives, vol. 8, Aug 2000, Ebscohost,, Accessed 7 Nov. 2019.

Pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have caused a significant reduction in the percentage of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere since 1990 (Schmidt and Jones)


In-text citations of ELECTRONIC SOURCE without AUTHOR

Use ("FIrst Word of Title").  If first word is a, an, or the -use the second word

WEB ARTICLE/ WEB PAGE: Full Citation in Works Cited

"Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA." Oyez,, Accessed 27 Apr. 2017.

Sample in-text citation - paraphrase

The Environmental Protection Agency is constantly reviewing environmental impact statements and laws that affect single states as well as multiple states at once, such as the "Cross State Air Pollution Rule Update" ("Utility").



Exceptions: Unusual In-text citations

In-text citations of PRINT materials with three+ (3 or more) authors

(Last Name of first author, et al. page#)

BOOK: (Full Citation in Works Cited)

Harris, Marcus, et al.  Global Cooperation on the Environment. Oxford, 2014, p.102.

Sample In-text citation - summary

Long term commitment by the global community to environmental challenges is difficult to achieve (Harris et al. 102).


For additional in-text citation rules, consult Purdue Owl's In-text Citation page.


Successful Paraphrasing Requires:

1) Reading the original source/fact carefully

2) Change the grammar and vocabulary of the sentence

    to make it a unique/new sentence of your own

3) Making sure the facts are same as the original!


Change the following original news source to your paraphrased sentence:

Original sentence #1:

"In the United States, 60 percent of travelers believe overcrowding will have a significant impact on destinations they choose within the next five to 10 years, according to the 2019 Portrait of American Travelers survey, conducted by the hospitality marketing firm MMGY Global."


Glusac, Elaine. "Take the Road Less Traveled, Tourism Officials Plead: Travel Desk]." 

      New York Times, Sep 01, 2019. ProQuest,

Paraphrase + In-text Citation:

A Portrait of American Traveler's survey conducted in 2019 found that 60 percent of Americans' future vacation plans were impacted by their concern about  the human footprint on the environments they were interested in visiting (Glusac).


Original sentence #2

While children make up a small number of all identity theft cases - more than 1 million minors were victims last year out of 16.7 million - the consequences often are much worse."


"Protect the Kids from ID Theft." USA Today, 21 Sept., 2018, Gale In Context:

      Opposing Viewpoints,, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.


Paraphrase + In-text Citation

Last year, more than 1 million minors were endangered by falling victim to identity theft and being potentially exposed to extremely dangerous outcomes ("Protect").