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Almeida: English 4.1 E-Resources: MLA 9 Format and Citations Workout

World Literature Paper: Requirements

Why Cite? Why Use Standard Citation Format?

MLA 9 Tools!

I. How Works Cited Page & In-Text Citations Work Together

YOUR Works Cited Page: Full Citations -> (In-text) Citations


II. MLA 9 FORMAT CHANGES FOR FULL CITATIONS: Title Page; Works Cited Page; Reading Full Citations

III . REVIEW: In-Text Citations: When, Why, and How?

3 Reasons for Inserting In-Text Citations in your paper:

1) Paraphrase = Facts, dates, information shared from original source; using YOUR vocabulary and sentence structure!

More than 100,000,000+ Covid-19 vaccines have been administered since February 2021 (Fauci).



2) Summary = Main concept or idea from original source put in YOUR words & grammar

The CDC is responsible for updating the medical professionals and the public of any vaccine dangers (Fauci).



3) Quote (exact) = "direct quote"/exact words from original source

"The choice of Dr. Jha, an outspoken public health expert, is a sign that the White House believes the country is entering a new phase of the pandemic" (Shear and Stolberg).


2 Situations: In-Text citations NOT required in Academic Paper:

A) Common Knowledge (something that is generally accepted/everybody knows)

does NOT have to be cited in an academic paper

Examples = 1) Our Sun is a star; 2) Dickens was a British writer



B) When the author is mentioned within the sentence where the paraphrase or summary appears

Example:  According to Lentz, more than 6,000 copies of Stamped have been distributed in 2020.

IV. In-text Citations: MLA 9 Basics

(Parenthetical) /  In-text Citations

MLA 9th Edition



Period  .  for sentence with (in-text citation) placed @ END of sentence!


More than 150 crops in the U.S. are reliant upon honeybees and other pollinators to produce fruit (O'Toole 10).  


Full citation for book:  

O'Toole, Christopher. Bees a Natural History. Firefly, 2013.