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Almeida: English 3.1 E-Resources: MLA 9 Format and Citations Workout

World Literature Paper: Requirements


MY DEMO TOPIC: How do honey bees build viable hives?

I. Why Cite? Why Use Standard Citation Format?

II. In-Text Citations: When, Why, and How?

3 Reasons for Inserting In-Text Citations in your paper:

1) Paraphrase = Facts, dates, information shared from original source; using YOUR vocabulary and sentence structure!

More than 900 species of bees exist worldwide (Kincaid).


2) Summary = Main concept or idea from original source put in

YOUR words & grammar

Colony collapse disorder has become a growing threat to honey bees over the past 15 years (Siefert).


3) Quote (exact) "direct quote" from original source


2 Situations when In-Text citations are NOT Required

A) Common Knowledge - Something everyone knows


Our sun is a star.

Honey bees produce honey.


B) When the author is mentioned within the sentence where the paraphrase or summary appears


According to Wood, sanitation is a major variable in hive productivity.

III. In-text Citations: MLA Basics

(Parenthetical) /  In-text Citations

MLA 9th Edition



Period  .  for sentence with (in-text citation) placed @ END of sentence!


More than 150 crops in the U.S. are reliant upon honeybees and other pollinators to produce fruit (O'Toole 10).  


Full citation for book:  

O'Toole, Christopher. Bees a Natural History. Firefly, 2013.