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Grillo: Saint Project: In-text Citations

In-text Citations - Basic Rules

In-text Citation Basics
  • Period is always at the very end.
  • If author is known, ALWAYS use author’s last name....(Goldstein 25).
  • If two authors, list both authors last names. ......(Smith and Pearson).
  • If three or more authors, list first last name and then et al.    ......(White et al.). 
  • If NO author, use first word of article title. …. (“Living"). or ....("New")
  • If it is from a source with page numbers (book, magazine article, etc), ALWAYS use page number. …(Goldstein 87). 
  • There is NO punctuation or abbreviations (p. pp.) between author/title and page number.   ......(Smith 216).
  • In-text citations must match up with Works Cited page.  If you have not used a source from your Works Cited page within your paper (in-text citations), that source MUST be removed from your Works Cited page.


In-Text Citations: Special Cases

For articles without an author and for this particular project, many of your article titles may be similar or exactly the same because they are likely the saint's name.


If the article titles are exactly the same , then you take the first word of the "article" title and the first word of the italicized title with a comma in between.

"Francis of Assisi, St." Environmental Encyclopedia, Gale, 2015. Biography In Context, Accessed 31 May 2018.

"Francis of Assisi, St." Encyclopedia of World Biography, Gale, 1998. Biography In Context, Accessed 31 May 2018.

("Francis", Environmental).

("Francis", Encyclopedia).


If the article titles begin with the same first word(s), you include include all of the same words + the first word that is different:

"The Life of Saint Francis of Assisi." World Eras, Gale, 2012. Biography In Context, Accessed 31 May 2018.

"The Life of St. Francis." Historic World Leaders,, Gale, 2014. Biography In Context, Accessed 31 May 2018.

("The Life of Saint").

("The Life of St.").




Make a Cheat Sheet from your Works Cited Page




Sample Paragraph with In-text Citations