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Hajian: Digital Literacy 21: II: In-text Citations

In-text Citations - Basic Rules

In-text Citation Basics
  • Use the full citations in your Works Cited page to determine what will go into the in-text citation.   
  • Look at the very beginning of each full citation - Does it begin with an author's name or names, or does it begin with an "Article Title"?
  • If author is first, ALWAYS use author’s LAST name.  …..(Evans).
  • If more than one author, list all the authors LAST names. ......(Smith and Pearson).  
  • If NO author, use FIRST word of "article title" AND put quotation marks around this word because article titles have quotation marks.  …. (“Texting").  
  • If article title begins with A, An or The, use second word of article title AND put quotation marks around the word.  "The Rules of Texting" should be ("Rules").
  • If it is a PRINT source (from a book or encyclopedia), ALWAYS use page number. …(Goldstein 87).  Electronic sources rarely have page #s.
  • There is NO punctuation or abbreviations (p. pg.) between author/title and page number.   ......(Smith 216).

  • Period is always at the very end AFTER the parentheses, whether a direct quote or paraphrase. 
  • In-text citations must match up with Works Cited page.  If you have not used a source from your Works Cited page within your paper (in-text citations), that source MUST be removed from your Works Cited page.


Mrs. Hajian's In-text Citation Video

Examples: Making In-text Citations from Full Citations


Sample Paragraph with in-text citations and Works Cited page

Sample Paragraph with In-Text Citations


Progress has been made slowly but surely in the area of cyberbullying and there are several reasons this is true. According to research studies conducted in 2014, there was a decrease in cyberbullying among adolescents when compared to the same time the previous year; 24% of teenagers have been cyberbullied vs. 31% in 2013 ("Cyberbullying").  High profile companies, such as Cox and Cartoon Network have launched public interest campaigns that encourage teens, parents, and educators to all who speak up when cyberbullying occurs,  Parents who assure their children that their computer privileges will not be revoked if they inform them of experiencing cyberbullying are much more likely to help prevent serious future ongoing harassment ("What").  The goal is to build trust within the family and at home with the hope of significantly reducing the extent of cyberbullying by at least 10% by 2018 when the next survey will be conducted ("Cyberbullying").   Finally, educators can play a powerful role by instituting academic and institutional sanctions against known cyberbullies.  When caught, cyberbullies may be pulled from sports teams or suspended or expelled from school (Lewin).


Works Cited

“Cyberbullying Crackdown.” Current Events, vol. 111, no. 5, 17 Oct. 2011, p. 4. EBSCOhost,

Lewin, Tamar. “Teenage Insults, Scrawled on Web, Not on Walls.” New York Times, May 06, 2010, New York Times,

“What Parents Can Do about Cyberbullying.” National Crime Prevention Council, Accessed 23 May 2017.


Sample Works Cited Page